Ceramics offer exceptional mechanical properties compared to metals and plastics. Compressive strength is very high for all the groups of advanced ceramics, but other properties, such as hardness, resistance to wear, shock resistance and flexural strength, vary from one type of ceramic to the next.
Resistance to wear is the material's ability to withstand mechanical fatigue. It very often determines the operating life of the part. Ceramics with very high hardness generally have very good resistance to wear. There are, however, many different wear situations (friction, spraying an abrasive material, shock, etc.), and it is therefore necessary to identify the most suitable materials for each situation, which requires a combination of very high hardness and tenacity. For example, components subject to friction, such as thread guides, nozzles, anti-wear coatings in the conveyance of abrasive products, etc. are generally made from alumina or ZTA, while grinding beads and certain mechanical tools are generally made from zirconia, ATZ, or even silicon carbide or silicon nitride.
These materials are used in a wide variety of business sectors: engineering (equipment manufacturers, special machines, processing equipment), defence and medical.
Comparative table of properties
|Values at ambient temperature – 20°c||
Resistance to compression(MPa)
Resistance to bending(MPa)
|Alumina (94 to 99.8 % )||3.6 to 3.9||1700 to 2500||250 to 350||350-370||12 to 18||4 to 5|
|Alumina-zirconia composites||4.0||2000||450||350||14||5 to 6|
|Zirconia MgO||5.5||>1700||550 to 700||170 to 200||11 to 12||6 to 8.5|
|Zirconia Y-TZP||6.0||2000 to 2500||900 to 1250||200 to 220||12 to 16||10 to 13|
|Silicon nitride||3.2||2500 to 3000||650 to 900||300 to 315||15 to 16||7.5 to 8|
|Silicon carbide||3.1||2500 to 3900||400 to 550||410||24.5 to 28||4 to 4.6|
|Boron carbide||2.5||>1500||425||440||28||3 to 4|
Acceptable: + ; Good: ++ ; Very good: +++.
These values are for information only and do not constitute a contractual obligation.